Volume 1 Issue 1
Present Pharmacological Treatment for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common sight-threatening retinal vascular disorder, in which macular edema is the main cause of visual impairment. The pathophysiology of macular edema involves both the presence of inflammation and angiogenic stimulant regarding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF, including ranibizumab bevacizuamb, pegaptanib,aflibercept are proven to be effective for treating macular edema resulting from CRVO. Intravitreal injections of corticosteroids, potent anti-inflammatory agents, such as dexamethasone implants and triamcinolone acetonide have been shown to have a beneficial effect on macular edema associated with CRVO.
KERATOCONUS: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO
Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative disease of the front part of the eye, named cornea. KC has three major characteristics: 1) cornea thinning, 2) corneal bulging, and 3) corneal scarring. KC usually appears during puberty and can quickly progress to severe stages leading to blindness. Worldwide 1:2000 people are affected with more prominence in the South Asians, Eastern Mediterranean and North African populations. Despite significant efforts by corneal researchers, the pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown, due in part to the absence of an animal model that can replicate KC.
Oxydative Metabolism in Optic Nerve Myelin: New Perspectives in Hereditary Optic Neuropathies
Silvia Ravera, Martina Bartolucci, Paola Ramoino, Daniela Calzia, Carlo Traverso, Isabella Panfoli*
Myelin from both central and peripheral nervous system was shown to express functional FoF1-ATP synthase and respiratory chain complexes that conduct an aerobic metabolism, to supportthe axonal energy demand. Along this view, it has been proposed that the trophic action of myelin that has been recognized to cause degeneration of chronically demyelinated is a major and not replaceable energetic role.
Bcl-2 Immunoexpression in Rapidly Growing Eyebrow Pilomatrixoma after Blunt Trauma
Yu-Yun Huang, MD, Chieh-Chih Tsai, MD, PhD*, Shu-Ching Kao,MD, Hui-Chuan Kau, MD, MS, Fenq-Lih Lee,MD
Pilomatrixoma is a benign cutaneous neoplasm that arises from matrix cells of hair follicle. It typically presents as a superficial, firm, solitary, slow-growing, painless dermal or subcutaneous mass in the head and neck region, including the eyelid or eyebrow. Rapidly growth pilomatrixoma is rare and have been reported following trauma. Herein, we present one patient with rapidly growing eyebrow pilomatrixoma with strong Bcl-2 immunostaining following trauma, which was not mentioned before.
Retinal Ganglion Cell Death is correlated with Eyeball Expansion in Mammals
Ji-Jie Pang*, Samuel M. Wu
Retinal ganglion cells (GCs) are gradually damaged in glaucoma patients and old subjects. It is unclear how mechanical stress (IOP) and strain (global expansion) differentially contribute to the progressive GC death. To further understand such retinal GC damage, neuronal populations in the GC layer (GCL) were studied in DBA/2J (D2) and wild type mice (1.5 to 19 months), in conjunction with observation of eyeball volume, IOP and the effect of anesthesia on IOP. The entire retinal GC population was retrograde-labeled and observed with a confocal microscope.
Epiretinal Membrane Surgery With and Without a Systematic Use of Blue Dye: Functional Outcome and Surgery Duration
P. Heitz, L. Yi-Ying, I. Fournier, T. Bourcier, C. Speeg-Schatz, D. Gaucher*
Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a common finding during ocular assessment in elderly people, particularly since OCT examination is routinely performed. About 5–10% of the population aged 50 or more is concerned. The main risk factors for developing an ERM are age, diabetes, ethnic origin (more frequent in Asians), and ocular diseases. Classically idiopathic ERMs are differentiated from secondary ERMs associated with other ocular or retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, myopic retinoschisis, uveitis, macular telangiectasia, retinal vein occlusion, and others.
Early Outcomes of External Dacryocystorhinostomy Done by an Orbit and Oculoplastic Fellow at the Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India
André Omgbwa Eballé*, Usha Kim
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the gold standard in the treatment of the nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Before 2014, there was no orbit and oculoplasty surgeon in Cameroon. We had had a fellowship in the training in that topic at Aravind Eye Hospital of Madurai in India from the 1rst of July to the 31rst of December 2013. We carry out a prospective descriptive and longitudinal study in the orbit and oculoplasty unit on our external DCR surgeries without silicone tubes done on adults patients with primary chronic lacrimal ducts obstructions.